Adopted at the Fourth Session of the Sixth National People’s Congress, promulgated by Order No. 37 of the President of the People’s Republic of China on April 12, 1986, and effective as of January 1, 1987
Chapter II Citizen (Natural Person)
Section 1 Capacity for Civil Rights and Capacity for Civil Conduct
Article 12 A minor aged 10 or over shall be a person with limited capacity for civil conduct and may engage in civil activities appropriate to his age and intellect; in other civil activities, he shall be represented by his agent ad litem or participate with the consent of his agent ad litem.
A minor under the age of 10 shall be a person having no capacity for civil conduct and shall be represented in civil activities by his agent ad litem.
Section 2 Guardianship
Article 16 The parents of a minor shall be his guardians.
If the parents of a minor are dead or lack the competence to be his guardian, a person from the following categories who has the competence to be a guardian shall act as his guardian:
(1) paternal or maternal grandparent;
(2) elder brother or sister; or
(3) any other closely connected relative or friend willing to bear the responsibility of guardianship and having approval from the units of the minor’s parents or from the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of the minor’s residence. In case of a dispute over guardianship, the units of the minor’s parents or the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of his residence shall appoint a guardian from among the minor’s near relatives. If disagreement over the appointment leads to a lawsuit, the people’s court shall make a ruling.
If none of the persons listed in the first two paragraphs of this article is available to be the guardian, the units of the minor’s parents, the neighbourhood or village committee in the place of the minor’s residence or the civil affairs department shall act as his guardian.
Chapter V Civil Rights
Section 4 Personal Rights
Article 103 Citizens shall enjoy the right of marriage by choice. Mercenary marriages, marriages upon arbitrary decision by any third party and any other acts of interference in the freedom of marriage shall be prohibited.
Article 104 Marriage, the family, old people, mothers and children shall be protected by law. The lawful rights and interests of the handicapped shall be protected by law.
Article 105 Women shall enjoy equal civil rights with men.